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Research surrounding vaping has grown substantially. If you were wondering where we get our information from, we have provided a few resources below which will be constantly updated.

E-cigarettes have created huge controversy and debate with strong views on all sides. Some of the things people have researched are:

What are the harms from e-cigarette use, and how much less are these than smoking?

  • Does use of e-cigarettes increase or decrease the risk of youth becoming smokers?
  • Do e-cigarettes help smokers to quit?

However, e-cigarettes are potentially harmful and should not be used by non-smokers and young people.

More on what’s in a vape:

What’s in a vape: Everything you need to know. Edwards, E. (2019), NBC News 

Non-nicotine liquids for e-cigarette devices in Australia: chemistry and health concerns. Australian Government Department of Health 

More on what are the risks:

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press

Quick Facts on the Risks of E-cigarettes for Young People. Centre for Disease Control

Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. Centre for Disease Control

E-cigarettes: how risky are they? World Health Organisation

A review of toxic effects of electronic cigarettes/vaping in adolescents and young adults. Critical Reviews in Toxicology

Children and E-Cigarettes: A New Threat to Health. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health 

Statement on the potential toxicological risks from electronic nicotine (and non-nicotine) delivery systems (E(N)NDS – e-cigarettes). Committee of Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and The Environment (COT)

A narrative review evaluating the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as a newly marketed smoking cessation tool. SAGE Open Medicine

E-cigarette explodes and starts flat fire leaving one woman in hospital after the device overheated while charging. Daily Mail

Effects of e-cigarettes and vaping devices on cardiac and pulmonary physiology

E-cigarette smoke damages DNA and reduces repair activity in mouse lung, heart, and bladder as well as in human lung and bladder cells

Lee et al 2018, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Effects of E-cigarette E-liquid components on bronchial epithelial cells: Demonstration of dysfunctional efferocytosis

Ween et al 2019, Respirology 

Outbreak of lung injury associated with the use of e-cigarette, or vaping products. Centre for Disease Control and prevention

The EVALI and Youth Vaping Epidemics — Implications for Public Health. The New England Journal of Medicine 

Cornering the Suspects in Vaping-Associated EVALI. The New England Journal of Medicine

The Messages Presented in Electronic Cigarette–Related Social Media Promotions and Discussion: Scoping Review

McCausland et al 2019, Journal of Medical Internet Research

Dual Use of Electronic and Conventional cigarettes is associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors in Korean men

Kim, CY., Paek, YJ., Seo, H.G. et al.  Sci Rep 105612 (2020), Nature, Scientific Report

Evidence around youth vaping:

The Vaping epidemic in adolescents, Jones K, DO & Salzman G MD National Center for Biotechnology Information

Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey Initial Findings, Access to Health Services. Peiris-John, R., Farrant, B., Fleming, T., Bavin, L., Archer, D., Crengle, S. & Clark, T.  (2020).  Youth19 a Youth2000 Survey

Australian Secondary Students’ Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, Over-the-counter Drugs, and Illicit Substances. Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer. Guerin N, White V.  Cancer Council Victoria;2018  

About e-Cigarettes, Australian Government, Department of Health

Use of e-Cigarettes among young people in Great Britain, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH)

Florida Youth Tobacco Survey (FYTS). Florida Department of Health 2019

Electronic Cigarettes and Youth in the United States: a call to action (at the local, national and global levels). Jenssen BP, Boykan R. National Library of Medicine

Impact of Social Media

Effects of Social Media on adolescents’ willingness and intention to use e-cigarettes: an experimental investigation. Vogel et al. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 23, Issue 4, April 2021, pages 694-701

Association between social media use and vaping among Florida adolescents, 2019. Lee et al. Preventing chronic disease 2021; 18:200550

Peer pressure at school influencing teen vape use. News Medical: Life Sciences

Schools Influence Adolescent E-Cigarette use, but when? Examining the Interdependent Association between School Context and Teen Vaping over time. 

Lippert et al 2019, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 

Environmental Impact

Bundesrat votes for ban on disposables. The German Bundesrat.  March 2023

From smoking to vaping: a new environmental threat? Jeremie Pourchez, Clement Mercier, Valerie Forest. Correspondence, Volume 10, Issue 7, E63-E-64. July 2022

A toxic, plastic problem. E-cigarette waste and the environment. Truth Initiative. February 2021

Impact on Health

An updated overview of e-cigarette impact on human health. Marques, P., Piqueras, L. & Sanz, MJ. An. Res 22, 151 (2021). 

Outbreak of lung injury associated with the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Association of E-Cigarettes with Erectile Dysfunction: The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Omar El-Shahawy et al.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Cardio Respiratory Impact:

Cardiopulmonary consequences of vaping in adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Wold et al. Circulation Research. 2022; 131: e70-e82

E-Cigarette flavored pods induce inflammation, epithelial barrier dysfunction and DNA damage in lung epithelial cells and monocytes. Muthumalage, T., Lamb, T., Friedman, M.R. et al. Sci Rep 9, 19035 (2019). 

Acute effects of electronic cigarette aerosol inhalation on vascular function detected at quantitative MRI. Caporale A, Langham MC, Guo W, Johncola A, Chatterjee S, Wehrli FW.  Radiology 2019; oct;293(1): 97-106. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2019190562. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Is Vaping better than smoking for cardiorespiratory and muscle function? Mohammad Z. Darabseh, James Selfe, Christopher I. Morse, and Hans Degens. National Center for Biotechnology Information

“Look before you leap:” Cardiologists warn about the risk of vaping Elsevier

Dual Use:

Chronic E-Cigarette use impairs endothelial function on the Physiological and Cellular levels. Leila Mohammadi et al. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2022; 42: 1333-1350

The health effects of real-world dual use of electronic and conventional cigarettes versus the health effects of exclusive smoking of conventional cigarettes: A Systematic Review. Charlotte Pisinger and Sofie K. Bergman Rasmussen. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 13687

Impairment of endothelial function by cigarette smoke is not cause by a specific smoke constituent, but by vagal input from the airway. Nabavizadeh et al. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2022; 42:1324-1332

More on vaping versus smoking:

Is Vaping Better Than Smoking? American Heart Association

Vaping, Smoking, and the Physical Fitness of Active Young Men. Dinkeloo et al 2020, American Journal of Preventative Medicine

Vaping Versus Smoking: A Quest for Efficacy and Safety of E-cigarette. Rehan et al 2018, Current Drug Safety

Commentary: Is Vaping Safer than Smoking? Judith J. Prochaska, PhD, MPH, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, MSD Manual Consumer Version

Secondhand Vape risks:

In secondhand vape, scientists smell risk. American Heart Foundation

Nicotine and the effects:

Addison Yeaman, General Counsel Brown and Williamson Tobacco Company July 1963 – quote “Moreover, nicotine is addictive. We are, then, in the business of selling nicotine, an addictive drug effective in the release of stress mechanisms.” [emphasis added] {1802.05,4}. Nicotine and Addiction

The dynamic effects of nicotine on the developing brain. Dwyer JB, McQuown SC, Leslie FM. Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 122(2): 125-39

Short- and long- term consequences of nicotine exposure during adolescence for prefrontal cortex neuronal network function. Goriounova N and Masvelder H. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2012 Dec; 2(12): a012120.

Neurotoxicity of e-cigarettes. Ruszkiewickz et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 138, 2020

Nicotine delivery and cigarette equivalents from vaping a JUUL pod. Prochaska et al. Tobacco control DOI: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33762429/

European Parliament and the council of the European Union. Directive 2014/40/EU. 2014

Gateway to smoking?

Effects of vaping on uptake and cessation of smoking: Longitudinal analysis in Aotearoa NZ adults https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.13702

Is e-cigarette use in non-smoking young adults associated with later smoking? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Khouja et al. Tobacco Control. DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055433

Association between electronic nicotine delivery systems and electronic non-nicotine delivery systems with initiation of tobacco use in individuals aged < 20 years. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Yoong et al. Plos One 16(9): e0256044

Position statements:

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: An updated policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Clin Cancer Res; 28(22) November 15,2022

E-Cigarettes as a growing threat for children and adolescents: Position statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics. 4 October 2021

WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2021: addressing new and emerging products. July 2021

Electronic cigarettes and health with special focus on cardiovascular effects: position paper of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC). July 2020. Kavousi M, Pisinger C, Barthelemy J-C, et al. DOI 10.1177/2047487320941993

The ugly truth about vaping – Anyone who says vaping is safe is just blowing smoke. American Heart Association

ERS position paper on tobacco harm reduction – Statement prepared by the ERS Tobacco Control Committee. May 2019

Electronic cigarette use in youths: a position statement of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies. Ferkol et al. 

Electronic cigarettes: A position statement from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand

Over 100 medical and scientific organisations and their position on Vaping

Key Australian and international position statements on e-cigarettes, health and options for regulations, Tobacco in Australia


NZ Findings:

A 2021 Report Into Youth Vaping: The ARFNZ/SPANZ vaping in NZ youth survey. November 2021

What does the 2019/20 NZ Health Survey tell us about progress towards a Smokefree Aotearoa? 14 Dec 2020 Health Central NZ

Use of e-cigarettes and smoked tobacco in youth aged 14–15 years in New Zealand: findings from repeated cross-sectional studies (2014–19). Walker et al (2020), The Lancet Public Health

Vaping Fact Sheet. Youth2000 (2020), Youth19 – A Vaping Fact Sheet

Patterns of Use of Vaping Products among Smokers: Findings from the 2016–2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) New Zealand Surveys. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

E-cigarettes, vaping and a Smokefree Aotearoa: where to next?| OPEN ACCESS. The New Zealand Medical Journal

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